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When people visit each other in good health, bonds of brotherhood and friendship are strengthened
When a man goes to visit his sick Muslim brother, he walks along a path of Paradise until he sits , and when he sits he is cloaked in mercy. If he comes in the morning, seventy thousand angels pray for him until evening, and if he comes in the evening, seventy thousand angels pray for him until morning.
At-Tirmithi, Ibn Majah, Ahmad. See, Al-Albani, Sahih Ibn Majah 1/244, and Sahih At-Tirmithi 1/286. It was also graded authentic by Ahmad Shakir.
God Himself explained the importance of and greatness of the reward of visiting the sick. The Prophet said:
“On the Day of Resurrection, God the Mighty and Majestic will say: ‘O child of Adam! I became sick and you did not visit me!’ The person will say, ‘O Lord, how can I visit you and you are the Lord of all that Exists!’ God will say, ‘Did you not know that my slave ‘so and so’ became sick, and you did not visit him? Did you not know that if you visited him, you would have found me with him?’” (Saheeh Muslim)
Islam invites to all that is good and warns from all that is bad. From those good and virtuous deeds is the visiting of the ill and afflicted. When people visit each other in good health, bonds of brotherhood and friendship are strengthened. How then when people visit each other in times of sickness and poor or failing health? Illustrating the empathy that Muslims are required to feel for each other, Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said:
“The parable of the Believers in their mutual love and mercy is like that of a living body: if one part feels pain, the whole body suffers in sleeplessness and fever.”[1]
Visiting the sick is from the clearest signs of such mutual love, mercy and empathy. More than that, visiting the sick is a major responsibility that every single Muslim is duty-bound to fulfill. The Prophet Muhammad said:
“The rights of one Muslim over another Muslim are six… When you meet him, you greet him with the salaam (i.e. to say: “As-Salamu alaykum”), when he invites you, you accept his invitation, when he consults you in a matter, you give him sincere advice, when he sneezes and praises God, you ask God to have mercy on him, when he is sick, you visit him, and when he passes away you accompany him (through his funeral).”[2]
In this Prophetic narration) we find that the Muslim is encouraged with concern for his brother in Islam during the three phases of his worldly existence: his health, sickness and his death.
Whilst in good health, the Muslim is obliged to greet his brother in faith with the greetings of peace and protection, to accept his invitations and to give him sincere advice.
Then, when the Muslim is suffering from a cold, an allergy or whatever else is causing him to sneeze, his brother in Islam is obliged to ask God to have mercy on him. Likewise, when the Muslim’s sickness is such that he is incapacitated, his brother in Islam is obliged to visit him.
Finally, when the Muslim passes away from this life, his brother in faith is obliged to accompany his funeral procession, prayer and burial.
The great reward awaiting those who visit the sick was spelt out by the Prophet when he explained:
“A Muslim visiting his sick brother will continue to be in the harvest of paradise until he or she returns home.”[3]
And God’s Messenger of Mercy, Muhammad, also said:
“A visitor walking to visit a sick person will be wading in the mercy of God. When the visitor sits with the sick one, they will be immersed in mercy until his or her return.”[4]
As with every other virtuous deed and noble duty, Prophet Muhammad led by example. He would both make time to personally visit the sick and also enquire after them through others.
Whilst in Mecca, for example, a pagan woman was given to throw filth and garbage upon the Prophet whenever he passed her house. One day, the noticeable absence of the Prophet’s abuser concerned him so much that he enquired after her. When he learnt of her sickness, he visited her. She was so taken aback by his merciful concern and that she embraced Islam.
“Repel (the evil of your foe) with what is better: then lo! the one between whom and you was enmity (will become to you) as if he were a dear friend.” (Quran 41:34)
The learned Companion, Anas b. Malik, also related the following episode from the life of God’s Final Prophet to humanity:
“A Jewish boy who would serve the Prophet fell sick, so the Prophet said: ‘Let us go and visit him.’ They (the Prophet and his illustrious Companions) went to visit him and found his father sitting by his head. The Messenger of God said: ‘Proclaim that there is no true deity worthy of being worshipped except God alone, and I will intercede on your behalf on account of it on the Day of Resurrection.’ The boy looked at his father and the father said: ‘Obey Abul-Qasim (Muhammad)!’ So the boy uttered: ‘There is no true deity worthy of being worshipped except God alone, and Muhammad is the last Messenger.’ The Messenger of God then said: ‘All praise is due to God Who saved him from the Fire of Hell.’”[5]
From these two examples from life of the Prophet, we find the Prophet said:
Hadrat Aa'isha رضى ال تعالى عنها relates: Whenever anyone of us would become sick, Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم would pass his right hand over the affected part of the sick person's body and recite the following dua:  
Azhibil ba'sa rabban naas washfi. Antash shaafee. Laa shifaa-a illaa shifaa uk. Shifaa-al laa yughaa diru saqamaa
Translation: O Allah, Lord and Sustainer of mankind, remove his difficulty and cure him. You are the only One who cures. There is no cure but Yours. Grant such
(complete) cure that leaves no trace of illness1.
Hadrat Salmaan رضى ال تعالى عنه says: Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم visited me when I was ill. When he was leaving he told me, 'O Salmaan! (and made this dua for me) 
Ka shafallaahu durrak. Wa ghafara zambak. Wa 'aafaaka fee deenika wa jasadik. 
Translation: May Allah remove your pain, forgive your sins, and grant you strength in your Deen and your health until your death2.
Another Hadith has it that whoever visits a sick person whose moment of death has not yet come, and he recites the following dua seven times, Allah Ta'ala will certainly cure him of his sickness:
As-alul laahal azeem. Rabbal arshil azeem. Ay yashfi yak
Translation: I beg Allah the Almighty, the Owner of the Majestic Throne, that He should cure you3.
Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم once visited a Muslim man who was sick. His voice was very feeble and he had become very weak and skinny. Seeing his condition, Rasulullah صلى العليه وسلم asked him,'What dua have you been making to Allah?' He said, 'Yes, I used to say: O Allah! Whatever punishment was in store for me in the Aakhirah, let it descend upon me now.' Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم said, 'Subhaanallah! You do not have the strength to bear it. Why do you not say this
at it is not a precondition that the sick being visited are from within the fold of Islam. Nevertheless, from these two examples, we find that the act of visiting the sick and suffering, as exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad, can be such a touching and moving experience that it might even cure that most fateful of diseases: infidelity.
“Indeed in the Messenger of God you have an excellent example to follow for whoever hopes for [the meeting of] God and the Last Day and remembers God much.” (Quran 33:21)
Rabbanaa aatinaa fid dunyaa hasana taw wafil aakhirati hasana taw wa
qinaa azaaban naar
Translation: O Allah, our Lord and Sustainer, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the Fire of Jahannam.
Hadrat Ibn Abbaas رضى ال تعالى عنه relates that when Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم would visit any sick person he would say:
Laaba-sa tahoorun, Inshaa Allah 
Translation: Have no fear! If Allah wills, your sickness will purify you of your sins.5
Hadrat Aa'isha رضى ال تعالى عنها relates that whenever Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم would become ill, he would recite the Mu'awwizaat (Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Naas) and then blow his breath over himself and rub his hands over his (auspicious) body.6 She also says that when anyone in his family was sick, he would recite the Mu'awwizaat and blow onto the sick person's body.7
Hadrat Usmaan bin abil-Aas رضى ال تعالى عنه says that he once complained about pain in his body to Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم . Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم instructed him: Place your hand on the area of the pain and recite Bismillah thrice and say (the following) seven times: 
A'oozu bi'izzatillaahi wa qudratihi min sharri maa ajidu wa uhaaziru 
Translation: I seek protection in the might of Allah and His power from the evil of what I am
experiencing and of what I am afraid.
Usmaan رضى ال تعالى عنه thereafter says, 'I did this and Allah removed my pain.'8
Our beloved Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم has also said, 'Whoever sees somebody who is sick or in some hardship, and says the following dua will never be afflicted by that sickness or difficulty :
Alhamdu lillaa hillazee 'aafaanee mim mab-talaaka bihee wafaddala nee 'alaa kaseerim mim man khalaqa tafdeelaa
Translation: All praise is for Allah alone Who has saved me from what He has afflicted you
with and greatly favoured me over many of whom He has created. 9
However, it should be recited softly and in a manner that the afflicted person is unable to hear it and does not get offended.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that if any Muslim recites:
La ilaaha illa anta Subhaanaka inni kuntu minazaalimeen
Translation: There is no Diety except You (O Allah), You are free from all faults, verily, I am from the transgressors. ...forty times in the state of sickness, then if he recovers, all his sins will be forgiven, but if he dies from it, he will be granted the reward; of a Shaheed(martyr).10
Hadrat Aa'isha رضى ال تعالى عنها says that whenever Rasulullah صلى ال عليه وسلم would become ill, he would recite the Muawwizaat and then blow his breath on the palm of his hands and then move them (gently)over his blessed body.11
She also says that when anyone in his صلى ال عليه وسلم family was sick, he would recite the
Mu'awwizaat and blow onto the sick persons body.12
The Mu'awwizaat are Surahs al-Falaq and an-Naas.
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